Tuesday Dec 11, 2018

Types of pollution

Marine pollution:

Marine pollution is the direct or indirect entry of any matter or energy to the marine environment, leading to reduced production, reduced growth of organisms and undesired effects on human and aquatic health.

Definition of pollutant:

Any matter or energy that exceeds the natural capacity for the environment and consequently disturbs the balance in the environment is called a pollutant.

Classification of pollutants:

Based on sustainability:

1.      Biodegradable pollutants, mainly organic biodegradable pollutants

2.      Dispersible pollutants, such as thermal pollutants

3.      Persistent pollutants, such as heavy metals and chlorinated organophosphate pesticides

4.      Solid pollutants, such as solid waste including plastics and polymeric materials

Based on the source:

1.      Land source pollution, including municipal, industrial and agricultural waste

2.      Sea source pollution, such as pollutions caused by the discharge of ballast water of ships, discoveries, extraction and other industrial activities at sea

3.      Atmospheric pollutants, like suspended particles with natural and synthetic origin

Based on nature:

1.      Biological pollutants, such as bacterial, fungal, viral infections and even invasive species

2.      Chemical pollutants, including organic, inorganic and radioactive pollutants

3.      Physical pollutants, such as thermal, noise and turbidity pollution

Types of coping strategies

Coping with oil pollution at sea:

§  Mechanical

§  Chemical

§  Biological

Equipment used in mechanical methods:

§  Boom

§  Skimmer

§  Sorbents

Boom:

Components of the boom:

-          Freeboard above the water surface to surround oil stains

-          Floatation chamber

-          A skirt/draft to prevent the escape of oil stains

-          Longitudinal strength member made of wire or chain

Types of boom:

-          Boom fences for shallow waters and calm sea waters

-          Round/Curtain boom for use in harbors and relatively calm seas

-          Inflatable boom for seaway

-          Improvised boom, such as wood, plastic tubes, tires and empty barrels

-          Fire-resistant boom to seal off the oil stain and burn it.

Fire resistant boom construction

Boom application:

1.      Enclosing oil stains

Enclosing oil stains

Enclosing oil stains

Enclosing oil stains

2.      Protecting a specific area from oil stains

Protecting a specific area from oil stains

Exclusion booming

3.      Deflecting the path of oil stains

Deflecting the path of oil stains

Disadvantages of booms:

-          In waves with heights greater than the boom freeboard, oil stains get out of the boom.

-          At flows higher than 1 knot, oil stain escape from underneath the boom skirt.

Skimmer:

Skimmer is a device that is used for gathering oil stains surrounded by a boom.

Types of skimmer:

-          Weir skimmer: Oil on the water surface is directed into the chamber with a little water and then it is pumped.

-          Absorbent skimmer: This type of skimmer comes in many favors including belt, plate, cable, and disc. It is used for oil stains with any diameter. It is flexible and resilient.

-          Brush skimmer.

-          Suction skimmer: It works like a vacuum cleaner and permanently sucks oil stains at the water surface.

Disadvantages of skimmer:

-          Skimmer performance is dependent on weather conditions.

-          In bad weather conditions, it gathers more water than oil stains.

-          Its application needs a special skill.

Oil sorbent:

Sorbents made of natural materials like sawdust, feathers, and carbon materials repel water and absorb oil stains 3 to 15 times their weight.

Sorbents made of synthetic sorbent materials such as polyurethane, nylon, and polyethylene absorb oil stains up to 70 times their weight.

Application of oil-stain sorbents:

-          Collecting small oil stains

-          Collecting the remains of large oil stains

-          In areas where it is not possible to use a skimmer.

Equipment used in chemical methods for dealing with pollution:

-          dispersive vessel equipped with dispersant spray arms

-          Special planes for spraying dispersant

Chemical material of dispersant:

This material contains chemical compounds that could disperse oil stains, converting them into droplets. These droplets are then dispersed in the water and undergo a natural process caused by waves and winds and gradually disappear.

How dispersant works:

Application of dispersant:

-          To clean the water from oil stains, especially very large ones

-          To prevent oil stains from reaching the beach and environmentally sensitive areas, equipment, resorts, etc.

-          To deal with oil stains at the time of exposure to bad weather conditions

Aerial dispersant spraying:

Dispersant spraying vessel:

Dispersant terms of use:

-          The oil stain diameter must be between 0.001 to 0.1 inches.

-          Water depth must be at least 10 meters and the distance must be 1 mile from a depth of 10 meters.

-          Wave height must be less than 3 meters.

-          Wind speed must be less than 30 knots.

-          It must be used immediately after the stain occurrence.

-          The higher the water salinity, it will work best.

-          The warmer the water, it will be more effective.

-          In many countries, the license of environmental authorities is required.

 

Biological methods to deal with the pollution of sea water:

In this method, the bacteria in water consume petroleum materials.

-          This method is very slow but it can be expedited by the following methods:

Adding phosphorus and nitrogen to accelerate the growth of oil-eating bacteria in the sea and beach

Adding marine bacteria and oil-eating microorganisms to water

Biological method:

Advantages and disadvantages of biological method:

Benefits:

-          The cleansing process is natural and makes less damage to the marine environment.

Disadvantages:

-          The process may take months or years.

-          It is very costly.

-          It is limited and is not widely used.

Equipment used in the natural method of dealing with pollution at sea:

-          This method typically does not use certain equipment.

-          It is typically used to improve oil-polluted beaches.

-          It is very slow and allows natural processes (such as evaporation, oxidation, bacteria feed from the oil, weathering and emulsification) clean the beach.

Introduction of coping equipment

Pollution prevention

Referring to the MARPOL Convention

International Convention for Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL):

The MARPOL Convention was adopted in 1973 by holding the International Conference on Marine Pollution by the IMO and subsequently was amended by the 1978 Protocol. The regulations cover various sources of pollution from ships. Its main objective is to eliminate intentional pollution of the sea environment by oil and other harmful substances and reduce the discharge of such substances, intentionally or unintentionally, through the enforcement of rules and regulations for ships and ports.

Application of the Convention:

1)     For ships that have the right to raise the flag of a member state.

2)     For ships that have not the right to raise the flag of a member state, but do operate under their supervision.

 

MARPOL annexes:

Annex I: Regulations for the prevention of pollution by oil

Annex II: Regulations for the pollution control by liquid toxic materials in bulk

Annex III: Regulations for the prevention of pollution by harmful packed substances

Annex IV: Regulations for the prevention of pollution by the sewage of ships

Annex V: Regulations for the prevention of pollution by garbage from ships

Annex VI: Regulations for the prevention of air pollution by ships

 

Annex I: Regulations for the prevention of pollution by oil

This annex applies to all tankers with a gross capacity of 150 and above and other ships with a gross capacity of 400 or more. Discharge of oil into the sea in marine special areas is prohibited in all circumstances, and has limitations in other areas. All oil tankers with a gross capacity of 150 or more and non-oil tankers with a capacity of 400 and more should have "Ship Oil Pollution Emergency Plan" (SOPEP).

Annex II: Regulations for the control of pollution by liquid toxic materials in bulk

This annex applies to all ships that carry hazardous bulk liquids. Based on this annex, it is forbidden to discharge materials to sea that may cause damage to the marine environment, and the remainder of these materials must be delivered to the port.

Annex III: Regulations for the prevention of pollution by harmful packed substances

This annex applies to ships that carry harmful substances in packaged form. Harmful substances refer to substances that are categorized as dangerous according to the regulations of carriage of dangerous goods by sea (IMDG Code). According to this annex, transportation of harmful substances is allowed only based on specified criteria, such as packaging, marking, labeling, existence of sufficient evidence, goods layout and special restrictions in relation to the ship safety and the protection of lives at sea.

Annex IV: Regulations for the prevention of pollution by the sewage of ships

This annex applies to all ships of 400 GT and above and ships below 400 GT that are certified to carry more than 15 persons. Based on this annex, ships must have a wastewater treatment system or grinding and disinfection system or sewage storage tanks.

Annex V: Regulations for the prevention of pollution by garbage from ships

Discharge of food is allowed at 12 miles from the nearest beach. If grinded waste is not larger than 25 mm, it can be discharged at 12 miles from the nearest beach, and the boards under food can be discharged at 25 miles from the nearest beach. Discharge of any garbage other than food waste is prohibited in "Special Areas." Garbage reception facilities should be provided by ports. All ships and vessels must have a waste management plan and waste register book.

Annex VI: Regulations to avoid air pollution from ships

·         Annex VI contains control requirements on ozone depleting substances (ozone containing halons and CFC), nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, volatile inorganic compound emissions from loading petroleum, fumes from burning materials on the hearth, waste reception facilities in ports, and the fuel oil quality. The deliberate release of these materials is prohibited.

·         Domestic and international laws

·         The 2010 Act and crimes

·         Law on the protection of the seas and navigable rivers against oil pollution

·         Legal requirements for the prevention of water pollution:

·         Law on the protection of the seas and navigable rivers against oil pollution (Act 2010) - the 1965 Act amendment  

·        Pollution or contamination: Discharge or leakage of oil or petroleum products or ballast water of ships or oil tankers in waters subject to this law.

·        Sources of pollution:

1.      Ships and oil tankers, including healthy, damaged, sunk, under construction, repair, fragmentation in manufacturing centers or under repair in the coast or in waters subject to this law.

2.      All fixed and floating installations such as platforms, artificial islands, oil tanks, pipes underwater or in the waters subject to this law.

·        Petroleum products: Any petroleum liquid or mixture containing oil, such as fuel oil, oil sludge, oil waste, types of petroleum products and derivatives.

Article 2: The waters of this law are:

Marine areas subject to the Marine Areas Law of the Islamic Republic of Iran in the Persian Gulf and the Sea of Oman, approved on April 20, 1993, and waters under the sovereignty of the Islamic Republic of Iran in the Caspian Sea and navigable rivers

 

Duties according to law:

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Duty

Oil installations and oil tankers, ships and vessels that cross or stop the waters subject to this law are required to hold "oil register book."

The PMO in cooperation with the Oil Ministry

The ship or vessel commander/owner

 

 

Oil installations

- Developing regulation for the oil register book

- Inspection of the oil register book

- Keeping the oil register book for three years

- Recording events in Persian, English or French

- Keeping the oil register book for three years

- Recording events in Persian, English or French

 

 

Article 3: Oil installations and oil tankers, ships and vessels that cross or stop the waters subject to this law are required to hold "oil register book."

Note 1: The register book must be kept for three years after the last event recorded in it, about the ship, oil tanker or oil installation.

Note 2: The register book will be valid only in Persian, English or French and it should be kept in a place easily accessible at any time for inspection by the PMO.

Note 3: The contents and events that should be mentioned in the register book, registration procedures and also regulations for the book inspection shall be in accordance with a bylaw that will be approved by the Cabinet within three months after the enactment of this Act, with the proposal of the Ministry of Road and Urban Development.

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Article 4: The authorities of ship, oil tankers, oil platform and installations that ignore obligations relating to the maintenance and regulation of the register book or register untrue or incorrect information or alter it, they shall be sentenced to a fine.

The ship or vessel commander/owner

 

Oil installations

- Accurate record of events in the oil register book

 

- Accurate record of events in the oil register book

 

 

Article 4: The authorities of ships, oil tankers, oil platforms and installations that ignore obligations relating to the maintenance and regulation of the register books or register untrue or incorrect information or alter it, shall be sentenced to a fine of twenty-five million (25,000,000) Rials up to one hundred million (100,000,000) Rials.

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Article 5: The PMO is required to create and manage necessary facilities in ports, docks and oil terminals, to receive the ballast and waste of oil tankers, ships and vessels.

 

The PMO

 

 

The ministries of Oil, Agriculture, Industry

 

Armed Forces

 

 

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

 

 

The ship or vessel commander/owner

- Providing facilities to receive the garbage of ships

- Developing the regulation for the garbage reception tariff

 

- Providing required facilities to create such installations including land

 

- Establishing facilities subject to this article in ports and maritime workshops under their management

 

 

- Develop environmental standards required to create the facilities subject to this article

 

 

- Delivery of waste and garbage to such facilities

 

Article 5: The PMO is required to create and manage necessary facilities in ports, docks and oil terminals, to receive the ballast and waste of oil tankers, ships and vessels.

The fees to use these facilities are determined in accordance with a bylaw that will be approved by the Cabinet within three months after the enactment of this Act, with the proposal of the Ministry of Road and Urban Development.

Note 1: The ministries of Oil, Agriculture and Industry and Mine are required to provide the required facilities to create such installations to the PMO, including land.

Note 2: The military and police are required to establish facilities subject to this article in ports and maritime workshops under their management.

Note 3: The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is required to develop and communicate environmental standards required to create the facilities subject to this article, based on international treaties and national regulations, and monitor their implementation in collaboration with the PMO.

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Article 7: In order to prevent contamination, the PMO is required to inspect oil tankers, ships, vessels and oil installations subject to this law. In case of any fault or defect, the PMO must stop their activities until elimination of defects.

The PMO

 

 

The ship or vessel commander/owner

 

Oil installations

- Inspection of oil tankers, ships, vessels and oil installations

- Stopping their activities until elimination of defects

 

- Accurate record of events in the oil register book

 

- Accurate record of events in the oil register book

 

Article 7: In order to prevent contamination, the PMO is required to inspect oil tankers, ships, vessels and oil installations subject to this law. In case of any fault or defect, the PMO must stop their activities until elimination of defects.

Article 9: It is prohibited to pollute the waters subject to this law by petroleum products. The perpetrator(s), in case of intentional action, are sentenced to imprisonment from six months to two years or a fine of twenty million (20,000,000) to five billion (5,000,000,000) Rials or both penalties. In case of inadvertent action, they are sentenced to a fine of ten million (10,000,000) to one billion (1,000,000,000) Rials.

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Article 10: In the event of contamination, for any reason, the authorities of the oil tanker, ship and vessel and oil installations are required to promptly notify the authorities of the nearest Iranian port and local authorities of the EPA and the Iran Fisheries Organization.

The ship or vessel commander/owner

 

 

- Notifying the authorities of the nearest Iranian port and local authorities of the Environment Protection Agency and the Iran Fisheries Organization.

 

Article 10: In the event of contamination, for any reason, the authorities of the oil tanker, ship and vessel and oil installations are required to promptly notify the authorities of the nearest Iranian port and local authorities of the EPA and the Iran Fisheries Organization. Violators, as the case may be, are sentenced to a fine of twenty million (20,000,000) to five billion (5,000,000,000) Rials, in addition to administrative sanctions and other penalties prescribed in this law.

Referring to the IMO conventions and regional treaties

Preventive lever to prevent pollution of the seas:

-          International conventions, such as the Convention of London

-          Regional conventions, such as conventions of Kuwait and Tehran

-          National laws and regulations, such as standards and guidelines

-          Implementation guidelines, such as the use of levers of the EPA, PMO, etc. for preventing and combating marine pollution

1.      The provisions of the Iranian law:

The fifth principle of Iranian constitution

The Islamic Penal Code (IPC)

Law on the Protection and Improvement of the Environment

Regulation (Pattern) of Environmental Impact Assessment

Regulation to prevent water pollution

Waste Management Act

Environmental standards

Air pollution standard

Wastewater output standard

Law on the protection and exploitation of aquatic resources

Bylaw on the law enforcement of protection and exploitation of aquatic resources

Iran's marine areas in the Persian Gulf and the Sea of Oman

 

Monitoring area

Exclusive economic zone of continental shelf

Law on the protection of the sea and navigable rivers from pollution by petroleum products

Iranian port regulations