Sunday Aug 19, 2018

Regional and international conventions

§  Kuwait Regional Convention (cooperation on the Protection and Development of the Marine Environment and Coastal Areas against Pollution)

§  Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution arising from the Disposal of Wastes and Other Subtances (LC 1972)

§  Convention on the Open Waters Intervention in the case of Oil Pollution Incidents (INTERVENTION 1969)

§  International Convention on Preparedness, Response and Cooperation against Oil Pollution (OPRC 1990)

§  International Convention for Safe Containers (CSC 1972)

§  International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL 1973/78)

§  The 1992 Protocol to the International Convention on Civil Liability caused by Oil Pollution Damage (CLC PROT 1992)

§  The 1992 Protocol to the International Convention on the Establishment of an International Fund for Compensation for Oil Pollution Damage (FUND PROT 1992)

§  The Protocol on the Preparedness, Response and Cooperation against Pollution Incidents caused by Hazardous and Toxic Substances (OPRC/HNS 2000)

§  Convention on the Control of Harmful Anti-moss Systems on Ships (AFS 2001)

§  Convention on Civil Liability for Bunker Oil Pollution Damage (BUNKERS 2001)

§  Convention on the Control and Management of Ships Ballast Water and Sediments (BWM 2004)

§  Nairobi Convention on the Transfer of Wrecks (NAIROBI WR 2007)

 

Navigational aid marks

The General Directorate of Ports and Maritime of Bushehr Port is responsible for servicing and keeping operational of more than 90 coastal lighthouses, bacons, buoys and light boats in the beaches and coastal waters in Bushehr Port. These devices are commonly called navigational aid marks and are divided into three areas: northern, central and southern. The northern area includes navigational aid marks in beaches and coastal waters of the Deilam, Gonaveh, Rigg and Kharg Island ports. The central area includes navigational aid marks in Bushehr Port, and the southern area includes navigational aid marks in the beaches and coastal waters to the south of Bushehr Port to Naiband area. The navigational aid marks services are performed regularly based on specified schedules in all areas so that the marks are kept on as much as possible. The maintenance for marks located on the beach are done using related vehicles and personnel, and the maintenance of sea marks are done using the buoy laying barge Morad 4. They are replaced, as required, using the buoy laying ship Mehr which is located at Bandar Imam Khomeini.

All the rules for marine lights have been adopted from the International Association of Marine Lights (IALA) rules which are approved by the IMO. Countries acceding to this convention are required to enforce these rules. Accordingly, all of the maritime areas in the world are divided into two regions: A and B. Each country sets, registers and declares its navigational aid marks for vessel direction according to one of the two areas. The two regions A and B have common rules except in lateral marks.

 Navigational aid marks are divided into 6 categories:

1.      Lateral marks

2.      Cardinal marks

3.      Isolated danger marks

4.      Safe water marks

5.      Special marks

6.      Emergency wreck marking

Lateral marks: These marks are used to specify the scope of channels and waterways to enter ports. In waterways of Area A, such as Iran, when entering the port, you will see red lateral marks on your left and green lateral marks on your right. Obviously this will reverse when departing the port.

Cardinal marks: These marks are used to specify the safe path at sea. They are divided into four categories: North, South, East and West. Each of these cardinal marks specifies a safe path for sailing. For example, if a vessel sees a west cardinal in its path, it must select its path so that it passes from the west of cardinal mark.

Isolated danger marks: These marks are used when a spot of sea is considered unsafe for seafaring because of, for example, a sunken vessel or a shallow spot, in which case the vessel must avoid that spot and continue its path from any side of the mark at a safe distance.

Safe water marks: This mark is usually seen in the harbor near any port and represents a safe zone in the area. Vessels can pass from each of the four sides of the mark.

Special marks: If an area of the sea is limited for a certain purpose and vessels are not allowed to sail in that area, this mark is used. For example, an area is limited for military exercises and it is communicated to vessels, in which case they should avoid navigation in that area.

Emergency wreck marking: This mark is used when a vessel has just been sunken and has not yet been registered in marine maps. In other words, this mark is used to quickly show the sinking location of a vessel to passing vessels, until the exact location of the sunken vessel, the depth of water above the danger point and the mark are determined.

To show navigational aid marks at the desired points, specific structures are used such as:

-          Some of these marks are floating which become fixed at sea by chains and one or more weights. They are called buoy.

-          Some of these marks become fixed on the seabed which is shallow, or near the beach. They are called bacon.

-          Another kind of these structures is located on the sidelines of beaches which become fixed by one or more bases like bacons. They are larger and taller than bacons. These structures come in various forms, such as tower light house which are called lighthouse.

-          Where the use of buoys is not appropriate due to the distance from the beach and the depth of sea and more focal height is needed, larger vessels are used for navigational aid marks such as LIGHT BOAT and LIGHT VESSEL which are called light boat. Like buoys, light boats become fixed by a chain and anchor.

All these structures use characteristics such as color and day mark in the daylight, light color and the number of on/off for its light (light character) in a period of time in the darkness, to represent a particular type of navigational aid marks and communicate to sailors.

Identifying navigational aid marks for Area A

1.      Lateral Marks

a)      Right of the channel:

-          Mark color: green

-          Day mark: green cone with its apex at the top

-          Light color: green

-          Light character: intermittent single double or flashes

 

b)     Left of the channel: 

-          Mark color: red

-          Day mark: red cylinder that is mounted vertically

-          Light color: red

-          Light character: intermittent single double or flashes

2.      Cardinal Marks

a)      Northern cardinal:

- Mark color: its top is black and its bottom is yellow

- Day mark: two black cones, one on top of the other, headed upward

- Light color: white

- Lights character: fast or very fast flashes

b)     South cardinal:

- Mark color: its top is yellow and its bottom is black

- Day mark: two black cones, one on top of the other, headed downward

- Light color: white

- Lights character: 6 very fast flashes and one long flash in 10 seconds or 6 very fast flashes and one long flash in 15 seconds

 

 

c)       Eastern cardinal:

- Mark color: top and bottom are black and middle is yellow

- Day mark: two black cones, connected from the base, mounted vertically

- Light color: white

- Lights character: 3 very fast flashes in 5 seconds or 3 very fast flashes in 10 seconds

 

d)      West cardinal:

- Mark color: top and bottom are yellow and middle is black

- Day mark: two black cones, connected from the top, mounted vertically

- Light color: white

- Lights character: 9 very fast flashes in 10 seconds or 9 very fast flashes in 15 seconds

 

3.      Isolated Danger Marks:

- Mark color: red and black horizontal stripes

- Day mark: two black spheres, one on the other

- Light color: white

- Lights character: dual flash group

 

4.       Safe waters marks:

- Mark color: red and white vertical stripes

- Day mark: one red sphere

- Light color: white

- Lights character: A long flash in 10 seconds (LFL 10s)

 

5.       Special marks:

- Mark color: yellow

- Day mark: X, which can be seen the same from the four sides

- Light color: yellow

- Lights character: Any flash except for aforementioned marks that do not confuse seafarers

6.      Emergency wreck marking:

- Mark color: blue and yellow vertical stripes

- Day mark: a yellow cross mounted vertically

- Light color: yellow and blue

- Lights character: a yellow flash and a blue flash in 3 seconds

Racon: It is an electronic device used as a navigational aid mark. In normal situations, it is in standby mode but as soon as it receives radar signals of a vessel, it sends marks as Morse code that is visible on the plan position indicator (PPI).

All navigational aid marks with some important features for seafarers such as light range, light character and mark type, are recorded on marine maps and are used by seafarers.

According to the notice of PMO for inserting a 14-character code on all floating navigational aid marks such as buoys, the first encoded buoy of Bushehr Port was deployed in April 2009 in the harbor of Asalooye Port. According to this principle, it is expected that, by the end of 2012, the codes are inserted on all floating navigational aid marks. The coding is important for two reasons: first, it determine the buoy ownership (PMO or other government agencies or private companies). Second, if a missed buoy is found, one can easily identify the port to which it belongs through this code. Thus if the dear sailors see drifting buoys with the following example codes, they must notify its location to the General Directorate of Ports and Maritime of the province or subsidiary ports.

An example of a code inserted on buoys

* BUZ is the abbreviation of Bushehr Port.

 

Dredging and hydrography

The importance of hydrography and dredging in ports

Hydrography is a branch of applied sciences which talks about measuring and describing the physical effects of the seas and other water sources, adjacent coastal areas, and sea-related phenomena such as tides, water streams, and environmental protection.

The most important and functional outcome of radiographic operations in order to maintain the safety of vessel traffic in marine areas is the development of marine maps.

Hydrography is currently being transformed and has experienced radical changes in the aspect of measurement technology. The multi-beam and airborne laser sounding systems provide a complete coverage of the water source bed compared with measures in the profiling sounding methods. The ability to determine the exact position of data on the ground has been greatly enhanced by satellite positioning systems. By combining digital and instantaneous satellite positioning systems and electroacoustic digital sounders, they are capable of recording large amounts of detailed hydrography data for developing detailed maps for navigation and engineering purposes.

Sounders devices are classified as follows:

A.     Single-beam sounders which have accuracy better than decimeter at shallow water.

B.      Multi-beam sounding technology which is being developed quickly and provides many potential facilities for thorough bed study.

C.      Airborne laser is a new technology which is very useful in mapping of shallow and clear waters.

After developing and analyzing hydrographic maps in ports, some projects are initiated for dredging operations (deepening or maintenance) in order to keep the depth of channels and vessel traffic safety.